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L$16 Billion Probe Intensifies; 35 CBL Employees Barred from Travel

first_img35 employees of the Central Bank of Liberia have been brought under the jurisdiction of the court and prohibited from leaving the country until the investigation into the alleged missing L$16 billion is concluded.George Abi Jaoudi omitted from list of “persons of interest”By William Q. Harmon and Alvin WorziWith the establishment of a Special Presidential Committee to probe the mysterious disappearance of L$16 billion from the vault of the Central Bank of Liberia (CBL), the Monrovia City Court yesterday, September 27, restricted the movement of 35 employees of the bank pending the outcome of the investigation.The involvement of the court was triggered by a Writ of Ne-Exeat Republica prayed for by authorities at the Ministry of Justice (MoJ) to restrain persons of interest from leaving the jurisdiction of the court pending an action.Legal sources confided in the Daily Observer that some of those restricted from leaving the country were expected to appear before Magistrate Kennedy Peabody yesterday at the Temple of Justice to hear the reading of their respective charges, if there were any. It was not clear why the Court decided to summon the employees to appear before it on today, because no one has been charged in connection to the ongoing investigation, this newspaper has gathered.The move comes as the government prepares itself to launch a “thorough investigation” into reports of the missing L$16 billion for which, the government of Liberia has barred 32 CBL employees from leaving the country.Those barred are classified as “persons of interest,” and it is anticipated that they would help investigators unravel the circumstances leading to the alleged disappearance of the money.This move, according to a Ministry of Information release, keeps those people on the ground as a way of helping solve the mystery surrounding the money.According to the release, the court order is meant to ensure that those named do not travel out of Liberia until the investigation is “comprehensively completed.”This is in addition to the two top persons of interest associated with the CBL — former Governor Milton A. Weeks and Deputy Governor Charles Sirleaf — who were initially barred by the government from leaving the country.It is also observed that George Abi Jaoudi, who was one of the three persons initially barred by the government from leaving the country, has been omitted from the updated list.Those whose names appear on the latest list are: former Governor Milton Weeks, Deputy Governor Charles Sirleaf, Deputy Governor Mounir Siaplay, Dorbor Hagba, Richard H. Walker, Adolphus Forkpah, and Cyrus Badio, head of public affairs and Maria E. Grigsby-Toe, who reportedly led the team that took the container out of the Free Port.Others are Amie N. Rogers, Michael B. Ogun, James Wilfred, Joseph K. Jallah, Supuwood T. Tarpeh, Mussa A. Kamara, Mustapha E. Sherman, Sylvia Tarkpah, Joyce J. Dolo, George Wilson, Miatta Oberly Kuteh, Musulyn R. B. Jackson, Maaka Amnlard, Prince Bull, Solomon Jaykpah, Theodoria B. Jreh, Oldada Deshield, and Ophelia Nyenpan Barquolleh.The rest are Gabriel Zinnah, Davison Lillie Ballah, Andrew Pabai, Edwina Edet, William Dargbeh, Stephen Nyema, David M. Wilson, and Lawrence Sirleaf.In an earlier move that legal pundits termed as unconstitutional, the Weah administration banned only former Governor Milton A. Weeks and Deputy Governor Charles Sirleaf, a son of the former President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, from traveling outside the country until pending investigation in the money matter were settled.“Government was reportedly in violation of the law when it initially barred these top officials without a writ from the court,” one lawyer told this newspaper yesterday.According to legal sources, if a court agrees that an individual has information “material” to a criminal proceeding, and will likely flee if subpoenaed, the witness can be locked up but, in theory, only for as long as is necessary to have the accused testify or be deposed of after the testimony.Some of those named in the new list have confirmed that they have not received any formal notice from the court barring them from leaving the country.“The government’s action was also in violation of the organic law of the state — the Constitution,” the lawyer said.According to Article 13, “Every person lawfully within the Republic shall have the right to move freely throughout Liberia, to reside in any part thereof and to leave therefrom, subject however to the safeguarding of public security, public order, public health or morals or the rights and freedoms of others.”It also states, “Every Liberian Citizen shall have the right to leave and to enter Liberia at any time. Liberian citizens and non-Liberian residents may be extradited to foreign country for prosecution of a criminal offense in accordance with the provisions of an extradition treaty or other reciprocal international agreements in force. Non-Liberian residents may be expelled from the Republic of Liberia for cause.”However, legal pundits believe that the government’s latest action seeking the intervention of the Court is meant to right the wrong of initially barring ex-governor Weeks and Mr. Sirleaf from leaving the country.“The rule of law itself suffers when a law is used as a pretext to sidestep longstanding checks on the arbitrary exercise of executive power,” another lawyer said.In its Press release Thursday, the Ministry of Information cultural Affairs and Tourism (MICAT), by an executive mandate, ordered all security agencies, particularly officers of the Liberia Immigration Service and the Liberia National Police to ensure that those named in the scandal do not leave the country until investigation into the mystery is completed.“The government takes the ongoing investigation seriously, because it has National Security Implications,” the release said.Information Minister Eugene Nagbe said: “The government has issued a security circular advising persons of interest, who are required to assist with the ongoing investigation into the circumstances surrounding the importation of Liberian Dollar banknotes into the country between November, 2017, and August, 2018, not to leave the country.”Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)last_img read more

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Govt mulls partnership with Brazil’s health sector

first_img– to aid communities on the borderTravelling to the capital city of Georgetown in times of emergency can be somewhat frustrating for some residents of indigenous communities. As such, the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) is considering partnering with neighbouring Brazil to have Guyanese access medical care there instead.The possible implementation of this plan should not face too many challenges, since residents of contiguous communities already utilise the health services of the Portuguese-speaking nation.It takes residents of Region Eight just about four hours of travel to access the closest hospital in Brazil, located in the town of Uiramuta. In cases when that hospital cannot handle specific cases, patients are referred to the hospital in Boa Vista.Minister of Public Health, Volda Lawrence, embracing a young mother of Paramakatoi who made a passionate plea for better transportation, especially for persons who need emergency careMinister of Public Health, Volda Lawrence, has said this arrangement could ease the painstaking efforts patients expend to get to the Georgetown Public Hospital (GPHC). She put the idea to the residents of Paramakatoi, Region Eight (Potaro-Siparuni) during a meeting at one of the primary schools there on Sunday.According to the Department of Public Information, the minister is scheduled to meet with her Brazilian counterpart later this week, and will raise the proposal.The issue of transportation and medical service was brought to the fore during the minister’s outreach to the village. After hearing the plight of a young mother who was unable to bear the cost of flying her sick child to the city for medical checkups, and similar cries from residents, Minister Lawrence made the suggestion.“Sometimes we have to look at economies of scale; we have to look at time, and we have to look at some of those issues that you brought up — of persons who will accompany the person who is ill,” she said.According to Minister Lawrence, each year, money is usually allocated for the medical evacuation of persons. However, in many instances, before the end of the quarter, the budget is exhausted. It is clear, she said, that the needs of the various communities utilising this service outstrip the resources that are available.“That is why I’m asking about Brazil, because sometimes we have to think outside the box. And if it means us entering into an agreement with the Brazilian Government to ensure that instead of us medivacking over the mountain, certain patients we can send to Brazil…that will help all of us.” She billed this idea as the best possible solution to the current problem.Meanwhile, in response to calls for a district hospital, Minister Lawrence said it is something that Government would have to work towards accomplishing. She said that is the ideal, since many other services could be offered there to ease the high incidents of medivacking, while at the same time providing employment.In the meantime, the minister said, the Government will work to further upgrade the Mahdia Hospital, where residents of Paramakatoi also go to receive emergency treatment. According to Minister Lawrence, the Mahdia Hospital has trained doctors and facilities that should meet the needs of patients.The Health Minister has said she would also speak to her counterpart in Brazil regarding whether the services could be extended in Brazil, and the possibility of getting assistance to construct the district hospital.last_img read more

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Tottenham striker won’t replace Man United-bound Falcao at Monaco

first_img1 Tottenham boss Mauricio Pochettino admits he will do everything to keep Roberto Soldado even though Monaco are believed to be lining up a move to sign him as a replacement for Radamel Falcao.Soldado has been linked with a move away from White Hart Lane after failing to produce his best form for the north London club.The Spanish forward only arrived at Tottenham last summer in a £26m move from Valencia but has only scored six Premier League goals.With Falcao making a shock move to Manchester United on transfer deadline day, Monaco are now doing everything they can to bring in a replacement before the window closes and could step up their move to sign Soldado.Despite Emmanuel Adebayor being the first choice striker, Pochettino admits he still sees a big future for Soldado at the club.He said: “We keep him. He was only missing against Liverpool due to injury.” Tottenham striker Roberto Soldado last_img read more

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Freeway closed by pickup crash

first_img AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MORESanta Anita opens winter meet Saturday with loaded card Everyone involved in the crash was wearing a seat belt, Myers said. Dawn Diaz, the driver of the Yukon, was transported to St. John’s Regional Medical Center in Oxnard, along with two passengers in her car, Myers said. Diaz, 36, of Ventura was admitted to the hospital with head injuries, Myers said. The two passengers were treated for minor injuries and released. Witnesses told the CHP that Rote may have been speeding, Myers said. “This may be a case where seat belts saved lives,” Myers said. “Without seat belts, the driver of the Ford F-150 would have definitely been ejected, and without seat belts, the driver and the passengers in the Yukon may have had serious problems.” Southbound lanes of the Ventura Freeway were closed west of the Conejo Grade for about 2 hours Friday morning while police and paramedics treated the injured and cleared away the wreckage, officials said. CAMARILLO – Two drivers were hospitalized Friday and the southbound Ventura Freeway closed after a pileup triggered by a speeding pickup that flipped over the center divider, officials said. Karen Rote, 45, of Camarillo suffered a broken collarbone and head injuries when her northbound Ford F-150 pickup truck clipped a 2004 Peterbilt Box Van, smashed into the center divider and flipped over into oncoming traffic just south of Santa Rosa Road. A southbound 2000 GMC Yukon smashed into Rote’s F-150, which was upside-down in freeway lanes, veered down an embankment, through a chain-link fence and onto a frontage road, CHP Officer George Myers said. Rote had to be extracted from the crushed pickup using a hydraulic pry tool. “From the damage to the vehicle, it’s pretty amazing nobody died,” Myers said. “Just goes to show you the way they construct vehicles today, and what can happen when people wear the proper restraints.” Josh Kleinbaum, (818) 713-3669 josh.kleinbaum@dailynews.com 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set!last_img read more

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CELEBRATIONS AS IRELAND’S WARRIOR HEROES BEAT WORLD CHAMPS GERMANY ON NIGHT OF DRAMA

first_imgIRELAND have rocked World Champions Germany – to seal at least a play-off spot for next year’s European Championships.Playing without injured Seamus Coleman – and with Shay Given forced off at 40 minutes with a knee injury – Martin O’Neill’s warriors caused a sensation at the Aviva by winning 1-0.Shane Long smashed home an astonishing winner in the 70th minute on a night when today’s heroes battled like Jack Charlton’s heroes of two and a half decades ago….closing own every ball, chasing the German players around the pitch like men possessed. Sub goalie Darren Randolph pumped a long kick-out and Long ran on to the ball with it all to do.But do it he did.He pushed the ball in front of him before smashing what turned out to be the winner into the top right hand corner of the net.The Aviva erupted in celebration. Randolf pulled off a wonderful save shortly afterwards as Ireland held on and held on – Walters was incredible – to seal an incredible victory.Scotland and Poland drew 2-2 in Glasgow, leaving us cert for a play-off at least.If we win in Poland on Sunday, we’re through to France – though a 2-2 draw or 3-3 draw would also get everyone dusting off the passports for the Continent next summer.Donegal Daily’s Mark Forker told us from the Aviva: “I’ve never seen anything like that tonight. It was incredible, just incredible.“The boys played out of their skins and the party will go on long into the night.” Shane Long told RTE: “That was wonderful, just wonderful. It’s been a fantastic night.”CELEBRATIONS AS IRELAND’S WARRIOR HEROES BEAT WORLD CHAMPS GERMANY ON NIGHT OF DRAMA was last modified: October 9th, 2015 by John2Share this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)Tags:1-0donegalGermanyIrelandwinlast_img read more

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HEARTBROKEN CHILDREN APPEAL FOR RETURN OF MISSING PUPPY

first_imgA CO Donegal mum has today pleaded for the return of her children’s missing puppy – saying Christmas just won’t be the same unless he is returned.Letterkenny woman Adele Dempsey is hoping donegaldaily.com readers can help reunite her three children with their puppy Guinness.The 12-week-old labrador cross puppy is all black…except for a small white patch on his bottom lip. “That’s how he got his name,” said Adele, from Glendale Manor in Glencar.“He did have a blue reflective collar on him but he may have wriggled out of it. He has been missing since last Wednesday (December 1).”Her children, Marissa, six, Conall, five and one-year-old Aodhan (pictured with Guinness) are heart-broken.“They are very upset,” said Adele, “Aodhan has lost his best friend. We just want our extremely loved puppy back as soon as possible. We can’t face Christmas without him.” Anyone who has seen Guinness the puppy is asked to contact Adele at 36 Glendale Manor as soon as possible. If you’ve seen him, please email us here at info@donegaldaily.com and we can let Adele know.© 2011 donegaldaily.com, all Rights ReservedThe copying, republication or redistribution of donegaldaily.com Content, including by framing or similar means, is expressly prohibited by law.Follow us on www.twitter.com/donegaldailyFollow us on www.facebook.com/donegaldaily Sell anything on www.donegaldailyclassifieds.comHEARTBROKEN CHILDREN APPEAL FOR RETURN OF MISSING PUPPY was last modified: December 4th, 2011 by BrendaShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)Tags:glencarletterkennyMISSING DOGlast_img read more

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HUNDREDS OF DONEGAL SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS ON STRIKE AGAIN

first_imgOver eight hundred Donegal secondary school teachers have opted to strike again as the row over the Junior Cert reform rumbles on.It’s the second time since December that teachers in Donegal have went on strike as part of a nationwide stance amongst post-primary teachers.The unions are concerned with the changes being proposed by the government to the Junior Cert which would see them assess 40% of the work of their own students. Negotiations between ASTI, TUI and the Education Minister last week failed to produce an agreement on the issue which prompted the latest strike.The strike has forced over three hundred and fifty thousand students to stay at home.It’s hoped that an agreement can be reached between all parties following today’s latest strike action.HUNDREDS OF DONEGAL SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS ON STRIKE AGAIN was last modified: January 22nd, 2015 by Mark ForkerShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:ASTIEducation MinisternewsSecondary SchoolsteachersTUIUnionslast_img read more

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Geocaching Caption Contest 6 – Win a Barely Coveted Prize

first_imgWinning Caption Entry – “Congratulations! You have found stage 2 of a 4 part multi cache!” – roro This is the sixth installment of our Geocaching Caption Contest. Here’s a little background to help mold your hilarious captions.  According to the geocacher pictured, kiwiwings, this photo was taken at a former Russian residential home in Latvia.  The home was left empty after the USSR dissolved. If you’re in the neighborhood hang out at GCVBHE for a bit.What caption would you write for this photo?  “Wait… I can see my house from here and I live in Wisconsin.”  You can do better.  The winner receives these (recycled*) barely coveted Cache In Trash Out stickers. Please include your geocaching username in all entries.The winner will be chosen by an ad hoc committee of Lackeys.21 Lackeys voted to crown the winner of the fifth Geocaching Caption Contest.  Take a look at the post to see who won.  Explore the wit and wisdom of geocachers by checking out all the Geocaching Caption Contests.Good luck! *The Cache In Trash Out stickers went unclaimed in the 4th Geocaching Caption Contest Share with your Friends:Morecenter_img SharePrint RelatedGeocaching Caption Contest 13 – Win a Barely Coveted PrizeSeptember 26, 2010In “Lackeys”Geocaching Caption Contest 15 – Win a Barely Coveted PrizeOctober 21, 2010In “Community”Geocaching Caption Contest 7 – Win a Barely Coveted PrizeJune 27, 2010In “Community” Barely Coveted Prizelast_img read more

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iPhone to Android: A Confession of Infidelity

first_imgThe Rise and Rise of Mobile Payment Technology Related Posts sarah perez Tags:#Apple#Google#mobile#Op-Ed#web What it Takes to Build a Highly Secure FinTech …center_img I’m approaching the 3-month mark with my first Android phone – Google’s flagship device, the Nexus S. I can fully confirm that it has taken at least this long for me to really begin thinking of this device as my phone, as my primary device and the one that I turn to the most when I’m using a mobile. My iPhone, as those of you who have been following this series know, is only semi-functional these days, after a long, 30-minute dip in my backyard’s pond. The fact it works at all is a testament to Apple’s craftsmanship, I’d argue.Still, even three months into the Android experience, I feel the need to confess: I’ve been cheating on my Nexus S. And I’ve been cheating with the iPhone. Why? Because it’s there? Or because the iPhone still has Android beat in several key areas?If you haven’t been following my transition from iPhone to the Nexus S, you can start here with my one-week review, then check in again here when I hit one month, here when I reached a month and a half and here at the 2-month point. This is an ongoing series.A Confession: I’ve Been Cheating Here’s my excuse: the Nexus S’s battery life is the pits – that is, in comparison with the iPhone. Oh sure, it’s better than many other Android phones out there, I’m told. But coming from the iPhone world, it’s still not what I’m used to. I struggled with this in the beginning of my transition, and I still struggle with this today, despite making some gains in the area of battery management through the use of applications, best practices and a lot of plugging in.My phone is almost always plugged in when not being used, and when it’s not, I know what to expect – a drained battery by afternoon or evening, depending on use. It’s a fact of life I’ve learned to live with, a trade-off for all the other goodness (and of that, there is much) that Android brings.But this issue has also served as an excuse to cheat. My iPhone is still functional, still activated and still very much a part of my day-to-day life. Now, like a corporate drone whose I.T. department rejects personal phones on the company network, I carry not one phone, but two.Still, using the battery drainage as an excuse to return to the iPhone feels like the cheap excuse that it is. I could just as easily purchase a battery booster pack or extra battery and give up the iPhone for good, right? I could just as easily pop my SIM card into another phone in my collection. But instead, I keep picking up the iPhone.Why?Am I really an iPhone girl at heart? Have I signed up for the wrong camp?Why Am I Cheating? And Why Won’t I Switch Back (Yet) After much consideration, I’ve decided the answer is “no.” I may cheat, but I still prefer Android. On the grand list of pros and cons, Android wins for three primary reasons: better notifications, customizable homescreens with widgets and a more open system for installing apps and making changes to the phone.iPhone’s user interface has been stale for years. It bores me. App folders, while functional, are ugly. They hide the pretty icons that made the iPhone’s screen after screen of apps at least somewhat attractive. But because of the ever-growing app catalog on iTunes, organizing apps into folders has become a necessarily evil for real app addicts.The iPhone notifications are frustrating too. Pop-ups that demand attention, each with equal importance, whether one is a simple re-tweet from Twitter or an urgent SMS message. Ignore them by hitting “close” when you’re in the middle of something, and soon, you’ll have completely forgotten what the messages had said. Worse, in an effort to compete for your attention, some apps overuse the notifications feature in an almost spam-like way. As much as I enjoy Hashable, for example, I don’t need to know the exact moment when a contact of mine begins using the service. Yes, of course this is configurable, but it requires an extra trip into Settings. And what if I do want to know who starting using Hashable, just not in real-time, via interrupting pop-ups? There just aren’t great solutions for this on Apple’s current platform. Meanwhile, the notifications on Android are more subtle. Maybe too subtle. There’s no pop-up demanding your attention, but sometimes, that means you miss messages that you should have seen immediately. But on the plus side, the drop-down window shade keeps the notifications nicely organized until you can attend to them.Still, it’s iPhone’s demanding nature that causes me to return. In moments of quiet, when my iPhone buzzes with a pop-up alert I want to respond to, I grab the phone, slide to unlock and I’m in the application. I’m tweeting back, texting or otherwise engaged before I’ve even noticed that I’ve cheated on my Android.Android Still Lacks “Polish”There are also those minor complaints, so specific to my personal routine that they are hardly worth mentioning. But I will.For example, when using Google Reader’s mobile site – my number two most-used application outside of Gmail, something strange happens on Android – the news items start to expand, stretching out across the screen so that the little action items like “Edit tags” and “email,” found at the bottom of each article in Reader end up off the side of the screen, forcing you to scroll over to the right to find them. I don’t know how to reproduce this problem, but it happens every day. You fix it by scrolling back up to the top of the screen, so that you can again see the address bar. Then everything automatically resizes itself to fit properly within the screen.Also, my preferred keyboard, SwiftKey, has issues with Google Reader. Although I like using it everywhere else on the phone, here it drives me nuts. When I try to select the tag that Reader suggests from its drop-down box, SwiftKey autocorrects it. Sometimes this gets so frustrating that I simply put the phone down and switch to iPhone. I realize, of course, I could simply swap out keyboards temporarily, but then there’s still the other issue with the screen resizing itself in Reader.Like I said, these are complaints that affect my own personal routine, and won’t likely impact many others, but they’re enough of a hassle to lead to my cheating on the Nexus S. At the end of the day, I’m in Reader a lot (and I prefer the mobile site to the native app) and the experience is sub-par on Android. When people talk about the “polish” of the iPhone’s user interface, it’s often a sum of minor details like this. Things you would never notice until they don’t work. That’s the problem on Android – despite its power and features, it lack the attention to detail found on iPhone.There’s no tapping at the top of the screen to automatically scroll up, the copy-and-paste feature is still cumbersome, positioning the cursor properly is hit-or-miss and finger taps on links close together are often misinterpreted due a seeming lack of precision with the touchscreen’s hardware itself.You Decide: Polish or Power?But I’m willing to sacrifice the polish for the power, I’ve decided. Widgets and notifications are not gee-whiz baubles with no real value – they’re improved ways to interact with a mobile phone and the massive amounts of data we now have to consume every day. Maybe Apple will introduce them in the iPhone 5. Maybe they will be even better when Apple does so. But even if so, they’re incredibly late. The iPhone is perfect in many ways, but stale. It’s outdated. Yes, it’s easy. It’s intuitive. But to me, it’s boring.All that being said, Apple gets a lot of things right, and for that reason, there’s no real winner in my own personal battle pitting the Android against the iPhone. I will do my best to let the iPhone go. To switch it off and leave it behind. But for now, the best I can do is promise this: the iPhone is no longer my *primary* device. That will be my Android.Or whatever phone I try next.In fact, I have an HD7 running Windows Phone 7 in my bag, nearly ready to go through the same process. Maybe it’s time for another experiment. Role of Mobile App Analytics In-App Engagement Why IoT Apps are Eating Device Interfaceslast_img read more

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Closed-Cell Foam Beats Open-Cell Foam

first_imgBy Neal GanserReplacing long-obsolete insulation materials with closed-cell or open-cell spray polyurethane foam is a big step in the right direction for energy efficiency. Of the two types of foam, it is closed-cell foam that truly answers all of the building envelope’s requirements for long-term sustainability. Compared to open-cell spray foam, closed-cell foam has a higher R-value and is less vapor-permeable.Higher R-Value per InchClosed-cell foam encapsulates a high-R-value blowing agent which acts somewhat like the argon in a gas-filled insulated window. The most commonly used and safest blowing agent is made by Honeywell Corporation; it’s a non-ozone-depleting, environmentally benign chemical. This blowing agent produces a closed-cell foam with an aged R-value of about 6.2 per inch.The blowing agent used for open-cell foam is carbon dioxide, which is off-gassed as the foam cures and is eventually replaced with air. This off-gassing also contains some sensitizing agents and various catalysts. The process takes about 30 days (or more, depending on thickness), and can have an impact on people working in the building. The R-value of open-cell foam is about 3.6 per inch.While open-cell foam is cheaper to buy per inch, it takes nearly twice as many inches to achieve required R-values, and so it ends up close to the same cost per installed R-value. Accommodating the required thickness of open-cell foam may require oversized structural members, since even R-19 walls require 2×6 studs. A customer should buy insulation by its aged R-value — based on testing by a third-party laboratory — not by inches.Lower PermeanceTo avoid moisture problems in any wall or roof system, the indoor and outdoor climates must be kept apart. This requires that four criteria be met: thermal isolation, air isolation, moisture isolation, and reversibility.¹ The reversibility requirement accounts for daily and seasonal reversals in the direction of vapor drive through wall and ceiling assemblies.Closed-cell spray foam meets all of these criteria, while open-cell foam does not. The vapor permeance of 2 inches of closed-cell foam is less than 1 perm, making it a natural moisture resister. The permeance of 3 1/2 inches of open-cell foam, on the other hand, is more than 16 perms — roughly ten times the permeance of closed-cell.Because of its extremely high moisture permeance, open-cell foam fails at moisture isolation, forcing the builder to decide which side gets a vapor retarder. The outcome of this decision precludes reversibility — that is, the ability of the wall to resist moisture or to dry out in either direction.Although air leakage is a more important mechanism of moisture transport than vapor diffusion, it is silly to assume that the laws of moisture diffusion are suspended for open-cell foams. Because open-cell foam allows moisture to diffuse through it, it can allow condensation to form behind exterior sheathing in winter or behind a vapor retarder or wallpaper in summer. Diffusion-related moisture problems in walls insulated with open-cell foam are not a lot different from similar problems with fiberglass-insulated walls — except that the moisture dries more slowly, because foam doesn’t allow air movement.While it is possible to use open-cell foam successfully in some climate zones where vapor drives are predominantly in a single direction — in other words, climate zones where you can accurately predict which side of a wall to apply the vapor retarder — these zones tend to be hot, humid coastal areas subject to hurricanes and flooding. Closed-cell foam is the only insulation approved by FEMA for flood zones.As a bonus, closed-cell foam imparts strength to whatever construction it is applied in. It can be used in any climate zone in the United States without a lot of extra stuff (like vapor retarders and thick walls) to get it to work and not cause moisture damage.Look at the refrigerator in your kitchen. Refrigerators haven’t used fiber insulation for over forty years, and they don’t use open-cell foam either. Closed-cell foam is the insulation the others can only ‘wanna be.’¹ Exerpted from “Walls that Work” seminar, © 2003 Corbond CorporationTo read another perspective on the issue, see “Open-Cell Foam Beats Closed-Cell Foam.”last_img read more

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